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measurement

meas·ure·ment(mzhr-mnt)

n.

1. The act of measuring or the process of being measured.

2. A system of measuring: measurement in miles.

3. The dimension, quantity, or capacity determined by measuring: the measurements of a room.

Conversion From U.S. Customary to Metric units

When You Know

Multiply By

To Find

inches

25.4

millimeters

2.54

centimeters

feet

30.48

centimeters

yards

0.91

meters

miles

1.61

kilometers

teaspoons

4.93

milliliters

tablespoons

14.79

milliliters

fluid ounces

29.57

milliliters

cups

0.24

liters

pints (liquid)

0.47

liters (liquid)

quarts (liquid)

0.95

liters (liquid)

gallons

3.79

liters

cubic feet

0.028

cubic meters

cubic yards

0.76

cubic meters

ounces

28.35

grams

pounds

0.45

kilograms

short tons (2,000 lbs)

0.91

metric tons

square inches

6.45

square centimeters

square feet

0.09

square meters

square yards

0.84

square meters

square miles

2.60

square kilometers

acres

0.40

hectacres

From Metric to U.S. Customary Units

When You Know

Multiply By

To Find

millimeters

0.04

inches

centimeters

0.39

inches

meters

3.28

feet

1.09

yards

kilometers

0.62

miles

milliliters

0.20

teaspoons

0.06

tablespoons

0.03

fluid ounces

liters (liquid)

1.06

quarts (liquid)

0.26

gallons

4.23

cups

2.12

pints (liquid)

cubic meters

35.32

cubic feet

1.35

cubic yards

grams

0.035

ounces

kilograms

2.21

pounds

metric ton (1,000 kg)

1.10

short ton

square centimeters

0.16

square inches

square meters

1.20

square yards

square kilometers

0.39

square miles

hectacres

2.47

acres

Temperature Conversion Between Celsius and Fahrenheit

°C = (°F - 32) ? 1.8

°F = (°C ? 1.8) + 32

Condition

Fahrenheit

Celsius

Boiling point of water

212°

100°

A very hot day

104°

40°

Normal body temperature

98.6°

37°

A warm day

86°

30°

A mild day

68°

20°

A cool day

50°

10°

Freezing point of water

32°

0°

Lowest temperature Gabriel Fahrenheit could obtain by mixing salt and ice

0°

-17.8°

U.S. Customary System: Length

Unit

Relation to Other U.S. Customary Units

Metric Equivalent

inch

1/12 foot

2.54 centimeters

foot

12 inches or 1/3 yard

0.3048 meter

yard

36 inches or 3 feet

0.9144 meter

rod

16 1/2 feet or 5 1/2 yards

5.0292 meters

furlong

220 yards or 1/8 mile

0.2012 kilometer

mile (statute)

5,280 feet or 1,760 yards

1.6093 kilometers

mile (nautical)

2,025 yards

1.852 kilometers

U.S. Customary System: Volume or Capacity (Liquid Measure)

Unit

Relation to Other U.S. Customary Units

Metric Equivalent

ounce

1/16 pint

29.574 milliliters

gill

4 ounces

0.1183 liter

pint

16 ounces

0.4732 liter

quart

2 pints or 1/4 gallon

0.9463 liter

gallon

128 ounces or 8 pints

3.7853 liters

barrel

(wine)

31 1/2 gallons

119.24 liters

(beer)

36 gallons

136.27 liters

(oil)

42 gallons

158.99 liters

U.S. Customary System: Volume or Capacity (Dry Measure)

Unit

Relation to Other U.S. Customary Units

Metric Equivalent

pint

1/2 quart

0.5506 liter

quart

2 pints

1.1012 liters

peck

8 quarts or 1/4 bushel

8.8098 liters

bucket

2 pecks

17.620 liters

bushel

2 buckets or 4 pecks

35.239 liters

U.S. Customary System: Weight

Unit

Relation to Other U.S. Customary Units

Metric Equivalent

grain

1/7000 pound

64.799 milligrams

dram

1/16 ounce

1.7718 grams

ounce

16 drams

28.350 grams

pound

16 ounces

453.6 grams

ton (short)

2,000 pounds

907.18 kilograms

ton (long)

2,240 pounds

1,016.0 kilograms

U.S. Customary System: Geographic Area

Unit

Relation to Other U.S. Customary Units

Metric Equivalent

acre

4,840 square yards

4,047 square meters

Cooking Measures

Unit

Relation to Other Cooking Measures

Conversion to Metric Units

drop

1/76 teaspoon

0.0649 milliliter

teaspoon

76 drops or 1/3 tablespoon

4.9288 milliliters

tablespoon

3 teaspoons

14.786 milliliters

cup

16 tablespoons or 1/2 pint

0.2366 liter

pint

2 cups

0.4732 liter

quart

4 cups or 2 pints

0.9463 liter

British Imperial System: Volume or Capacity (Liquid Measure)

Unit

Relation to Other British Imperial Units

Conversion to U.S. Customary Units

Conversion to Metric Units

pint

1/2 quart

1.201 pints

0.5683 liter

quart

2 pints or 1/4 gallon

1.201 quarts

1.137 liters

gallon

8 pints or 4 quarts

1.201 gallons

4.546 liters

British Imperial System: Volume or Capacity (Dry Measure)

Unit

Relation to Other British Imperial Units

Conversion to U.S. Customary Units

Conversion to Metric Units

peck

1/4 bushel

1.0320 pecks

9.092 liters

bushel

4 pecks

1.0320 bushels

36.369 liters

Apothecary Weights

Unit

Relation to Other Apothecary Units

Conversion to U.S. Customary Units

Conversion to Metric Units

grain

160 dram or 1/5760 pound

equal to the U.S. Customary grain

64.799 milligrams

dram

60 grains or 1/8 ounce

2.1943 drams

3.8879 grams

ounce

8 drams

1.0971 ounces

31.1035 grams

pound

12 ounces or 96 drams

0.8232 pound

373.242 grams

Units of the International System

The International System (abbreviated SI, for Systeme International, the French name for the system) was adopted in 1960 by the 11th General Conference on Weights and Measures. An expanded and modified version of the metric system, International System addresses the needs of modern science for additional and more accurate units of measurement. The key features of the International System are decimalization, a system of prefixes, and a standard defined in terms of an invariable physical measure.

Base Units

The International System has base units from which all others in the system are derived. The standards for the base units, except for the kilogram, are defined by unchanging and reproducible physical occurences. For example, the meter is defined as the distance traveled by light in a vacuum in 1/299,792,458 of a second. The standard for the kilogram is a platinum-iridium cylinder kept at the International Bureau of Weights and Standards in S?vres, France.

Unit

Quantity

Symbol

meter

length

m

kilogram

mass

kg

second

time

s

ampere

electric current

A

kelvin

temperature

K

mole

amount of matter

mol

candela

luminous intensity

cd

Supplementary Units

The International System uses two supplementary units that are based on abstract geometrical concepts rather than physical standards.

Unit

Quantity

Symbol

radian

plane angles

rad

steradian

solid angles

sr

Prefixes

A multiple of a unit in the International System is formed by adding a prefix to the name of that unit. The prefixes change the magnitude of the unit by orders of ten from 10^{24} to 10^{-24}.

Prefix

Symbol

Multiplying Factor

yotta-

Y

10^{24} = 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000

zetta-

Z

10^{21} = 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000

exa-

E

10^{18} = 1,000,000,000,000,000,000

peta-

P

10^{15} = 1,000,000,000,000,000

tera-

T

10^{12} = 1,000,000,000,000

giga-

G

10^{9} = 1,000,000,000

mega-

M

10^{6} = 1,000,000

kilo-

K

10^{3} = 1,000

hecto-

h

10^{2} = 100

deca-

da

10 = 10

deci-

d

10^{-1} = 0.1

centi-

c

10^{-2} = 0.01

milli-

m

10^{-3} = 0.001

micro-

10^{-6} = 0.000,001

nano-

n

10^{-9} = 0.000,000,001

pico-

p

10^{-12} = 0.000,000,000,001

femto-

f

10^{-15} = 0.000,000,000,000,001

atto-

a

10^{-18} = 0.000,000,000,000,000,001

zepto-

z

10^{-21} = 0.000,000,000,000,000,000,001

yocto-

y

10^{-24} = 0.000,000,000,000,000,000,000,001

Additional Units

Listed below are a few of the non-SI units that are commonly used with the International System.

Unit

Quantity

Symbol

angstrom (= 10^{-10}m)

length

?

electron-volt (= 0.160 aJ)

energy

eV

hectare (= 10,000 m^{2})

land area

ha

liter (= 1.0dm^{3})

volume or capacity

l

standard atmosphere (= 101.3 kPa)

pressure

atm

Derived Units

Most of the units in the International System are derived units, that is units defined in terms of base units and supplementary units. Derived units can be divided into two groups - those that have a special name and symbol, and those that do not.

2. an amount, extent, or size determined by measuring

3. a system of measures based on a particular standard

measurement(mzhr-mnt)

A method of determining quantity, capacity, or dimension. Several systems of measurement exist, each one comprising units whose amounts have been arbitrarily set and agreed upon by specific groups. While the United States Customary System remains the most commonly used system of measurement in the United States, the International System is accepted all over the world as the standard system for use in science.

measurement

measurement /mrmnt/ n. [C;U] a determination of the size, weight, speed, etc., of s.t.: A tailor took the mans measurements for a new suit.